The functional tests Modern Naturopathy most commonly recommends are listed below.
They provide findings on nutrient status, and gut and hormonal health amongst others, and can greatly improve client outcome and reduce the number of clinic visits. These are tests not available usually through your GP. We will only suggest testing if the findings would be valuable to you, and we can supply a referral for your GP for any relevant NHS funded tests that you can access free of charge.
They are an expense, but this is offset against the results and time benefits, often costing less long term. They are extremely useful for acute and medium term care, and to use for any referrals we make. For children, and those with mental health difficulties I strongly recommend testing as the leeway required for a more trial and error approach over time is not often available.
Most laboratories give all practitioners a small discount on their tests. Modern Naturopathy chooses not to pass on this discount, but to provide the analysis at no charge. Often the fee for this analysis time is greater than the discount provided, and is always at least equal to.
Many more individualised tests are available according to individual needs based on personalised treatment, and are mainly like for like on price.
The tests we have found to be most useful and used most often are (see below for more details):
GI Effects or G1360 stool test, Metabolomix+ nutrient test, FIT intolerance tests, thyroid screening, DUTCH hormone test, mycotoxin panel, and adrenal stress panels.
Digestion and gut health:
GI Effects® Comprehensive Stool Profile (Genova) – £355.00 Requires stool sample.
This test (along with the GI360 below) offers the best technology for checking levels of 24 different types of bacteria. The is done via a new process called PCR. This works by checking the DNA of the bacteria and is fast becoming the world leader in ways to test for bacteria. Gastrointestinal (GI) function is important for general health. This includes balancing beneficial microbial flora in the gut to enhance health benefits. GI health is key in digestion, nutrient usage, and ridding the body of waste and pathogens. Poor digestion and malabsorption can lead to immune dysfunction, nutritional insufficiencies, and various disease states. Poor GI function can also lead to food allergies and other toxicities.
Health isn’t just about what you eat, it’s about what you digest and absorb! You can eat the best diet in the world but if you can’t properly break down and uptake the nutrients in your food it won’t optimally support your health.
Good digestion relies on a carefully coordinated series of digestive actions and secretions. This is supported by a thriving community of friendly bacteria in our guts which help to break down food and keep nasty microbes at bay.
A lack of any of the digestive juices, an imbalance in gut bacteria, an overgrowth of non-beneficial microbes, or changes in how fast food moves through the digestive system can all adversely affect digestion.
Common symptoms associated with compromised digestive function include: • Heartburn
• Frequent burping
• Food feels like it is sat in the stomach for a long time
• Abdominal cramps or pain especially after eating • Bloating
• Foul smelling stools or gas
• Intolerance to high-fat foods • Pale stools that float
• Brain fog
• Anxiety and depression
What’s more, 70% of the immune system is located in the gut. This means digestive health is directly linked to immune health. If you find yourself getting unwell regularly, or you suffer from allergies or an autoimmune disease, digestive imbalances could be a contributing factor.
The digestive system is also an important exit route for toxins and old hormones. As a result, poor digestion is also linked to hormonal imbalances and skin conditions.
A GI effects stool test is one of the most comprehensive ways to assess digestive health and function. By assessing key digestive markers this test is able to give an overview of all aspects of digestive function.
It includes an assessment of:
- Fat digestion
- Protein digestion and pancreatic function
- Markers for inflammation, allergic response and gut immune function
- Microbial balance – including an abundance of beneficial species of bacteria and presence ofyeasts, mould and other bacterial species
- Pathogenic bacteria, yeasts and parasites
- The integrity of the gut liningA GI effects test is recommended when:
- You have symptoms of poor digestion (see above).
- You suffer from allergies.
- You have an autoimmune disease, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, Crohn’s, colitis ormultiple sclerosis.
- You have a skin condition such as eczema, acne or psoriasis.
- You suffer from a hormone imbalance such as PMS, endometriosis, fibroids or polycystic ovarysyndrome.
- You have had multiple courses or a long course of antibiotics.
- Your mental health is affected.
GI Effects® Microbial Ecology Stool Profile – £200.00
As above but just for fungal markers – only recommended for retesting after an initialcomprehensive stool test.
GI360 TM Stool Analysis (Doctors Data) – £355.00
The other stool test we offer. Both are fully comprehensive, but the GI360 contains more viral information. We choose dependent on the client. Requires stool sample.
GI360TM profile, an advanced, innovative, comprehensive and clinically-applicable stool profile, utilising multiplex PCR molecular technology, coupled with growth-based culture and ID by MALDI-TOF, sensitive biochemical assays and microscopy to detect and assess the status of pathogens, viruses, parasites and bacteria that may be contributing to acute of chronic gastrointestinal symptoms and disease.See GI Effects above for background information on comprehensive stool tests, this is applicable here too.
Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth Test – £164.00
This test requires a sample of breath. There should be a 24 hour preparation period prior to starting the test, which should be started with a 12-hour preparation diet followed by a 12 hour overnight fast, this process will take 3 hours to collect the samples at timed intervals.
SIBO (Small Intestine Bacterial Overgrowth) is a condition in which bacteria that should be in the large intestine begin to congregate in the small intestine in far higher numbers than normal. This happens when the migrating motor complex (MMC) fails to effectively sweep bacteria in the small intestine back into the large intestine between meals. Once in the small intestine, these bacteria multiply and feed off carbohydrates from food, creating gases, specifically methane and hydrogen. These gases are responsible for the SIBO symptoms which include abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, constipation and diarrhoea.
It is now thought that SIBO may be the underlying cause in many cases of IBS as well as one cause of intolerances to sucrose, fructose and lactose. Overgrowths of bacteria in the small intestine can also lead to malabsorption, pale fatty stools and anaemia.
But SIBO can affect much more than just digestion and absorption. It is also associated with:
• Chronic pancreatitis • Fatigue
• Acid Reflux
• Acne rosacea • Skin Rashes • Restless legs • Joint pain
• Weight loss or gain • Food sensitivities
• Interstitial cystitis
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Chronic Fatigue Syndrome • Fibromyalgia
The only way to currently diagnose SIBO is by taking a SIBO breath test. The test works by measuring the production of hydrogen or methane gas after the ingestion of glucose or lactulose. If there is an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine, large quantities of fermentation gases will be produced and can be detected in a breath sample.
The lactulose test is most useful for diagnosing bacterial overgrowth in the end of the small intestine. This is commonly associated with constipation dominant IBS.
The glucose test is most effective for assessing bacterial overgrowth in the upper part of the small intestine. This is typically present in cases of diarrhoea dominant IBS.
A SIBO test is recommended to those who:
- Suffer from IBS, especially if there is a lot of abdominal bloating and gas
- Have one of the conditions above that may be aggravated by SIBO
- Have unexplained digestive symptoms as well as vague symptoms such as fatigue, headachesand joint pains
H. pylori Stool Test – £126
Stomach pathogen which can cause stomach ulcers; also reduces stomach pH leading to small intestinal microbial overgrowth (see above for issues and symptoms).
Allergy and Food Intolerance:
Wheat and Gluten Reactivity Panel: Cyrex Array 3x – £335.00
This test requires a sample of 2ml Serum.
(Recommendations for phlebotomy services will be provided after the order has been received. Prices for these services vary depending on your location.)
Coeliac disease is a well-recognised medical condition in which gliadins (gluten proteins found in wheat, barley and rye) cause an immune reaction in sensitive individuals which destroys the lining of the small intestine. This can lead to severe digestive symptoms and malabsorption of nutrients However, some coeliac patients have no gut symptoms, even though their body is still being damaged, while others experience neurological and psychiatric symptoms instead of the classic digestive distress.
What’s more, it is now recognised that many people have reactions to either wheat or gluten that don’t qualify as a coeliac disease but still impact on their health. This includes wheat sensitivity and non-coeliac gluten-sensitivity. Previously it was thought that the effects of gluten were limited to coeliac disease, and strictly gut-oriented, such as bloating, gas, and abdominal pain. Thanks to ongoing research, we now know that up to six times more people’s health is affected by gluten than previously indicated.
Gluten intolerance has been linked to over 50 diseases so far, most of them autoimmune. Fortunately, a revolutionary breakthrough in gluten reactivity testing is now available to help determine whether gluten is damaging your health.
The symptoms of coeliac disease, wheat sensitivity and NCGS are very diverse. This can make it difficult to diagnose and it is not possible to distinguish between different gluten-related complaints on the basis of symptoms alone.
Common complaints include:
- Abdominal pain
- Diarrhoea or constipation
- Brain fog
- Numbness in arms and legs
- Ataxia (lack of coordination, gait abnormality, speech changes or abnormalities in eyemovements)
- Mouth ulcers
- Joint and muscle pain
It has been discovered wheat is made up of more than 100 different components that can cause a reaction, not just one. The problem is, a person can react to only one of the many proteins in wheat, or a combination of proteins, peptides, and enzymes associated with wheat.
Older tests for coeliac disease and gluten sensitivity focus on just one protein – alpha gliadin. This new test covers the whole range of proteins, peptides and enzymes involved in gluten and wheat sensitivity.The test also assesses whether gluten has a drug-like opiate effect on an individual. Some people have enzymes in their digestive tract that break gluten down into opioids that act like heroin or morphine. These opioids disrupt brain function and are responsible for many of the mood and neurological changes experience by some gluten sensitive people.
- The full range of antigens tested includes:
• Wheat IgG
• Wheat IgA
• Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgG
• Wheat Germ Agglutinin IgA
• Non-Gluten Proteins-A IgG*
• Non-Gluten Proteins-A IgA*
• Non-Gluten Proteins-B IgG*
• Non-Gluten Proteins-B IgA*
• Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgG*
• Gliadin Toxic Peptides IgA*
• Native + Deamidated Alpha-Gliadin-33-mer IgG • Native + Deamidated Alpha-Gliadin-33-mer IgA • Alpha-Gliadin-17-mer IgG
• Alpha-Gliadin-17-mer IgA
• Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgG
• Gamma-Gliadin-15-mer IgA
• Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgG
• Omega-Gliadin-17-mer IgA
• Glutenin-21-mer IgG
• Glutenin-21-mer IgA
• Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgG
• Gluteomorphin+Prodynorphin IgA
• Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgG
• Gliadin-Transglutaminase Complex IgA
• Microbial Transglutaminase IgG*
• Microbial Transglutaminase IgA*
• Transglutaminase-2 IgG
• Transglutaminase-2 IgA
• Transglutaminase-3 IgG
• Transglutaminase-3 IgA
• Transglutaminase-6 IgG
• Transglutaminase-6 IgA
The test is able to Identify possible coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, dermatitis herpetiformis, gluten ataxia or other wheat/gluten-related disorders. It can also be useful for assessing autoimmune reactivity associated with wheat proteins and peptides.
It is recommended for people who present with:
• Non-responsive digestive symptoms
• Multiple vague symptoms such as digestive complaints, joint pain, headaches and fatigue • Chronic fatigue syndrome
• Autoimmune conditions
Cyrex also offers to test for gluten cross-reactivity. For instance, eating dairy can trigger a gluten- like immune response because it has a similar protein structure to gluten. Knowing about cross- reactivity helps foods that might be perpetuating your symptoms and hindering recovery.
There are other allergy and intolerance tests available from Cyrex.
FIT Test 176 (KBMO Diagnostic) – £325.00
The Food Inflammation Test (FIT) is a food sensitivity test that uses IgG antibodies and complement antigen to measure 176 of the most common foods, colourings and additives. The test is run using a blood sample obtained from a finger prick. This is a brilliant diagnostic tool for many chronic conditions, and used often, with great success in clinic.
FIT Test 132 (KBMO Diagnostic) – £250.00
The Food Inflammation Test (FIT) is a food sensitivity test that uses IgG antibodies and complement antigen to measure 132 of the most common foods, colourings and additives. The test is run using a blood sample obtained from a finger prick. This is a brilliant diagnostic tool for many chronic conditions, and used often, with great success in clinic.
FIT Test 22 – (KBMO Diagnostic) £95.00
The FIT 22 Food Inflammation Test is a food sensitivity test that measures IgG antibodies and immune complexes. This test evaluates 22 of the most common food sensitivities, including gluten, dairy and eggs. The test is run using a blood sample obtained from a finger prick. This is a brilliant diagnostic tool for many chronic conditions, and used often, with great success in clinic.
Metabolomix+ (formerly ONE test) – £335.00
This test requires a sample of the first-morning urine, with optional add-on bloodspot finger prick
and buccal (mouth) swab if omega fatty acids or genetic testing are required. Are you getting enough nutrients to function optimally?
Severe nutrient deficiencies may be a thing of the past in the developed world, but changes in food quality, busier lifestyles and health conditions that compromise nutrient absorption can all impact on our nutrient status.
Signs and symptoms of nutrient insufficiency can develop long before true deficiency occurs. Without adequate levels of nutrients, the body has to prioritise certain pathways over others resulting in some processes in the body becoming compromised.
This can manifest, amongst other signs, as:
• Brittle hair and nails
• Frequent mouth ulcers
• Cracking at the corners of the mouth • Bleeding gums
• Poor night vision
• White spots on the nails
• Dry and scaly skin
• Hair loss
• Little bumps on the backs of the arms • Restless legs
• Poor sleep
• Mood changes
The Metabolomix+ test is the most comprehensive way to assess nutrient status. Traditional blood tests are only able to give a snapshot of the nutrient levels in the bloodstream. They don’t reveal anything about whether the body is using the nutrients effectively.
What’s more, not all nutrients can be measured in the blood. Some nutrients are stored in places such as the liver and some of them are kept within such tightly controlled limits in the bloodstream that blood tests will only show a problem when severe deficiencies exist.
The Metabolomix+ test is a functional nutritional assessment. This means that it measures key pathways in the body to see if the body is absorbing and utilising nutrients effectively. It uses over 80 different biomarkers to give an in-depth understanding of individual diet and supplementation needs. The analysis is done using a first morning void (FMV) urine sample.
The biomarkers measured gives an overall picture of health that includes assessment of: • Digestion and absorption
• Energy production
• Amino acid balance – these are the building blocks of proteins
• Neurotransmitter metabolism (neurotransmitters are involved in mood)
• Vitamin and mineral need
• Toxin exposure and detoxification efficiency
• Oxidative stress – the balance of free radicals and antioxidants in the body
The results can then be used to plan a personalised diet and supplement plan to support nutrient absorption, top up any insufficiencies, and ensure optimal function of all areas of health.
This test is recommended for those who:
• Suffer from signs and symptoms of nutrient insufficiency • Have long term unexplained fatigue
• Suffer with mental health conditions and mood disorders • Want to improve health and nutritional status
• Aim to optimise sports performance
• Have a history of poor diet and nutrient intake
• Suffer from a digestive disease that affects absorption
Several diseases are associated with abnormal organic acid, amino acid, and fatty acid levels such as depression, anxiety, cardiovascular disease, neuro-cognitive decline, diabetes, cancer, anorexia, and many others.
Optional add-ons are, in more detail:
Essential and Metabolic Fatty Acids – Bloodspot
• Omega 3 Fatty Acids
• Omega 6 Fatty Acids
• Omega 9 Fatty Acids
• Saturated Fatty Acids
• Monounsaturated Fatty Acids • Delta-6 Desaturase Activity
• Cardiovascular Risk
Nutrient and Toxic Elements – including heavy metals Genomics (if one or more of the following SNPs are selected)
• APO E (C112R + R158C)
• MTHFR Combined (A1298C + C677T) • TNF-α
• COMT (V158M)
Organic Acids Test (OAT) – £256.00
This test requires a sample of the first-morning urine. Similar to the Metabolomix+ but only the organic acids element.
The Organic Acids Test provides a comprehensive metabolic snapshot of your overall health.
It includes over 70 different analytes which provide information about: • Energy production
• Neurotransmitter balance, which affects mood and motivation
• Amino acid balance
• Vitamin requirements
• Detoxification ability
• Microbial imbalances, such as yeast or bacterial overgrowth
The test uses a urine sample to measure the levels of compounds called organic acids. Organic acids are chemicals that are produced during the body’s day-to-day metabolism. Some of these are made directly by the body’s cells as they create energy and break things down. A number of organic acids directly or indirectly indicate deficiencies of critical vitamins. Other types of organic acids are produced by bacteria or yeast living in the body. One of the most important uses of the organic acids test is as an indicator of dysbiosis, an abnormal overgrowth of yeast and bacteria in the intestinal tract. Some of these bacterial organic acids get absorbed into the bloodstream and can interfere with the metabolism of neurotransmitters such as dopamine. This can affect mood and behaviour. Organic acids are analysed in urine because they are excreted through the kidneys.
This test is recommended to those who:
- Want a comprehensive overview of their health or an initial screen to determine which areas of their health need the most support.
- Suffer from chronic fatigue.
- Have a mood or neurological disorder.
- Suffer from autoimmune disease or have poor immunity.If abnormalities are detected using the organic acids test, a targeted diet and supplement plan can be created to correct any microbial imbalance and restore healthy cellular metabolism.
Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones (DUTCH) Plus (Complete and Cortisol Awakening Response) – £336.00
Requires a sample of urine and saliva. The DUTCH Plus test is the most comprehensive way to measure of levels of sex and stress hormones. It uses a combination of urine and saliva samples collected through the day to assess hormone levels, metabolites and organic acids to give a complete overview of hormonal health. There is a cheaper DUTCH Complete but this is our preferred test. The test includes measurement of:
- The levels of sex the hormones oestrogen, progesterone and testosterone – these are important for reproductive health
- The balance of oestrogen metabolism – oestrogen can be metabolised through a variety of pathways. Some of these are less beneficial than others. Healthy oestrogen metabolism is important for bone health, reproductive function and cancer prevention.
- The balance of androgen metabolism – androgens are male sex hormones and can be converted to more or less potent metabolites. The balance of these metabolites can be a factor in conditions such as acne, male pattern baldness and prostate enlargement
- The levels of the stress hormones cortisol and DHEA and their metabolites – these hormones co-ordinate our sleep wake cycle and ability to respond to life’s challenges. They can become imbalanced during long-term stress.
- The cortisol awakening response – this acts as a mini stress test to see how well your body is prepared to start each day.
- The level of melatonin – this is the neurotransmitter than is responsible for inducing sleep
- The levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin – these are importantmessengers involved in mood and motivation
- Markers for the level of vitamin B12 and Vitamin B6 – these vitamins are important for theproduction and metabolism of hormones and neurotransmitters
- Markers for glutathione and DNA damage – this can be used to determine how much oxidativestress the body is under. Essentially how well are the body’s antioxidant defences coping with their current load of free radicals.
This test is recommended for people who have:
- A health condition related to a hormonal imbalance such as endometriosis, irregular menstrual cycle, pre-menstrual syndrome, polycystic ovary syndrome, fibroids, fertility problems, acne, enlarged prostate, osteoporosis or a hormone-sensitive cancer.
- Experienced long-term high levels of stress
- Difficulty sleeping or waking up in the morning
- Fatigue, low mood, lack of motivation or other vague unexplained symptoms
There are other DUTCH tests available dependent on your symptoms and menstrual cycle pattern (or if you’re a non cycling female or male) including DUTCH Complete only £289, DUTCH Cycle Mapping (for very irregular cycles, fertility etc.) + PLUS £449. This is best decided after taking the initial client history.
Thyroid Complete (Medical Diagnosis) – £189
This test requires a blood draw.(Recommendations for phlebotomy services will be provided after the order has been received. Prices for these services vary depending on your location.)The Thyroid Complete Profile analyses serum levels of TSH, Free T3, Free T4, Total T4, Total T3, Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPO), Thyroglobulin Antibodies (TGA), Reverse T3 (rT3) and T3 Uptake. The addition of rT3 to the Thyroid Basic Profile offers the practitioner a more complete understanding of thyroid function. The conversion of T4 to T3 can be impaired in some individuals resulting in higher levels of inactive rT3 which can lower the amount of active T3 available to the cells. T3 uptake is a measure of thyroxine binding globulins (thyroid prealbumin, albumin and TBG) and is proportional to the degree of saturation of the binding proteins by thyroxine.Thyroid imbalances are complex and wide-ranging, so this profile is indicated for symptoms including:
• Skin issues
• Hormone imbalances
• Weight gain
• Fluid retention
• Reduced libido
• Skin problems
• Poor concentration
• Sensitivity to the cold and musculoskeletal pains
Thyroid Monitor and Vitamin Home Test (County Pathology) – £75.00
This test requires a finger prick home blood sample. This is a benefit over the Thyroid Complete above as a phlebotomist is not required, but it is not suitable for all clients as thyroid markers are not as comprehensive, however this is perfectly sufficient for many. It also has the added benefit of co-factor nutrient analyses.
Analyses CRP, Ferritin, TSH, Free T3, Free T4, Thyroglobulin Antibodies (TgAb), Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies (TPO), Vitamin B12 and Vitamin.
Comprehensive Adrenal Stress With CAR (Doctors Data) – £135.00
The Comprehensive Adrenal Stress with CAR assesses the HPA axis/adrenal function and the cortisol awakening response (CAR) along with salivary secretory IgA (sIgA).
CAR is the expected maximum rise in cortisol levels observed at 30 minutes post awakening, approximately 35-60% above the waking value, followed by an expected decline sixty minutes after waking. Monitoring the CAR is critical to understand the HPA axis’ physiologic responsiveness and is a key indicator of HPA axis adaptability and reactivity.
SIgA is the predominant antibody found on mucosal membranes and represents the body’s first line of defence. SigA levels change in response to stress. Elevated levels of sIgA are associated with an upregulated, active immune or inflammatory response and may be reflective of aute psychological and/or physical stressors. Decreased levels of sIgA are commonly seen in individuals with low immune system functioning, and are a sign of chronic, ongoing psychological and/or physical stress (HPA axis dysfunction) to the body which has depleted sIgA reserves.
This test includes 6 cortisol levels collected over the course of the day (on waking, 30 minutes post waking, 60 minutes post waking, at noon, in the evening and before bed), plus DHEA and salivary secretory IgA.
Enzyme Immunoassay Antibody (EIA)
When should I use
A lower CAR is often seen in individuals with:
Seasonal affective disorder
Short sleep cycles
Lack of morning sunlight exposure
Hippocampal damage or atrophy
Factors associated with an elevated CAR include:
Ongoing job-related and perceived stress
Immediate access to light upon awakening
Ovulation phase of the menstrual cycle
Toxins and detoxification:
Mycotoxin Screen (GPL) – £375.00
This test requires a 10ml sample of the first-morning urine before food or drink. Fasting for 12 hours may increase the excretion of mycotoxins from the adipose tissue.
Mycotoxins are chemicals produced by moulds. Mould are able to grow anywhere where it is warm and damp. They can grow on almost any surface and are commonly found
on walls (especially in bathrooms!), behind wall paper, on fibre glass insulation, on ceiling tiles, in the upholstery of vehicles, and in foodstuffs. The majority of exposure to mycotoxins occurs through food ingestion or via airborne exposure. Some of the most commonly affected foods include grains, peanuts and coffee. Unfortunately, mycotoxins are resistant to heat and survive most types of processing.
Diseases and symptoms linked to mycotoxin exposure include fever, pneumonia-like symptoms, heart disease, rheumatic disease, asthma, sinusitis, cancer, memory loss, vision loss, chronic fatigue, skin rashes, depression, ADHD, anxiety, and liver problems.
The signs and symptoms of mould toxicity include:
• Brain Fog, Memory Problems, Trouble Focusing, Headaches
• Fatigue and Weakness
• Unexplained Muscle Cramping, Aches and Pains in the Joints, Persistent Nerve Pain • Numbness and Tingling
• Eye Problems like Red Eyes or Light Sensitivity
• Asthma and Sinus Problems like a Cough or Shortness of Breath
• Tremors and Vertigo
• Digestive Issues like Change in Appetite, Diarrhea, Nausea, Abdominal Pain
• Metallic Taste in the Mouth
• Temperature Regulation or Night Sweats
• Excessive Thirst and Increased Urination
Common types of mould that produce harmful mycotoxins include:
- Aspergillus moulds – these are the most common types of mould in the environment. The black variety of aspergillus, aspergillus niger is commonly found in bathrooms. The aspergillus species produce the mycotoxins aflatoxin and ochratoxin which are toxic to the liver. These toxins have been found in crops including peanuts, corn, cotton, millet, rice, sorghum, sunflower seeds, wheat, and a variety of spices. They are also found in eggs, milk, and meat from animals fed contaminated grains.
- Penicillum moulds – there are over 200 species of penicillum moulds. It is often found in indoor environments and is responsible for many allergic reactions. In the home, Penicillium can be found in wallpaper, carpet, furniture, and fibreglass insulation. Many different types of citrus fruits can also become contaminated with Penicillium, as can seeds and grains. The most common mycotoxin produced by Penicillium is ochratoxin which can damage the kidneys. It is also carcinogenic.
- Stachybotrys mould – a greenish-black mould that can grow on materials such as gypsumboard, paper, and ceiling tiles. Stachybotrys is known for its production of the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins. Two of the more common mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys are roridin E and verrucarin. In addition to these mycotoxins, the fungus produces nine phenylspirodrimanes, as well as cyclosporine, which arepotent immunosuppressors.
- Fusarium mould – these fungi grow easily on grains such as corn and wheat. The majormycotoxins fusarium produce are called zearalenone and fumonisin. Exposure to mycotoxins from Fusarium can lead to abdominal distress, malaise, diarrhoea, and sickness. Zearalenone has also been implicated in reproductive disorders.The mycotoxin screen is a urine test that can detect 11 different mycotoxins from 40 different species of mould.
This test is recommended for people who:
- Are concerned about mycotoxin exposure from their home or professional environment
- Have the signs and symptoms of mould toxicity
- Suffer from asthma, sinusitis or unexplained respiratory symptoms
- Suffer from chronic fatigue syndrome
- Have a mood or neurological disorder that may be linked to mycotoxin exposure
Toxic and Essential Elements; Hair (Doctor’s Data) – £76.50
This test requires a hair sample (pubic hair may be used if preferred – say if head hair has been dyed/chemically treated). Hair is essentially an excretory tissue rather than a functional tissue. Therefore, hair analysis provides important data that can be used in conjunction with symptoms and other laboratory values. It is an inexpensive and valuable screen for physiological excess, deficiency or maldistribution of elements. As protein is synthesised in the hair follicle, elements are permanently incorporated into the hair and represent a temporal record of element metabolism and toxic exposure.The levels of nutritional elements such as magnesium, zinc, copper, selenium and chromium correlate with levels in organs and other tissues whereas toxic elements may be 200-300 times more highly concentrated in hair than in blood and urine. Hair is generally the tissue of choice for detection of recent exposure to toxic elements such as arsenic, aluminium, cadmium, lead, antimony and mercury.
This test may be useful for assessing:
• Toxic element exposure
• Excessive fish consumption
• Impaired glucose tolerance • Kidney function, impotence • Reduced testosterone
• Vision problems
• Parkinson’s like symptoms
Please note: Other tests are available – please enquire if you require anything not on this list.